Differences in the education levels amongst countries are measured using three scales:
E1ij is the difference in the % of literate adults between countries i & j,
E2ij is the difference in the % of population enrolled in 2nd level education between countries i & j,
E3ij is the difference in the % of population enrolled in 3rd level education between countries i & j,
The scores for each of the three indicators, and the resultant factor (see below concerning the confirmatory factor analysis), can be found in an Excel spreadsheet attached at the bottom of this page. This spreadsheet contains the values for 14,280 country pairs (i.e. n x n-1 for 120 countries). The precise coding for these variables is explained below. Please note that in accordance with the arguments and analyses presented in our JIBS paper, the absolute value of the education dimension is the appropriate form if you are using it as an indicator of psychic distance.
For the second and third education indicators, the attached data represent the values for 1994. For the literacy indicator, the data represent the values for 1995.
EDUCATION INDICATOR CALCULATIONS
Edu F (abs) = absolute value of Edu F
Edu F – is the single-factor solution, using principal component analysis, for E1ij, E2ij and E3ij
E1ij = (E1i – E1j)
Where, E1i = 100 – % of illiterate adults (15+, male & female) for the exporting country (i)
And, E1j = 100 – % of illiterate adults (15+, male & female) for the importing country (j)
E2ij = (E2i – E2j)
Where, E2i = # of students in 2nd level education / estimated population under the age of 15 for the exporting country (i)
And, E2j = # of students in 2nd level education / estimated population under the age of 15 for the importing country (j)
E3ij = (E3i – E3j)
Where, E3i = # of students in 3rd level education / estimated population under the age of 15 for the exporting country (i)
And, E3j = # of students in 3rd level education / estimated population under the age of 15 for the importing country (j)
Edu f– Difference in Education Factor:
The preceding three indicators have be reduced to a single factor using confirmatory factor analysis (cfa). This factor score has been estimated using all 14,240 country pairs (i.e. including the imputed values for Serbia and Taiwan). The individual factor loadings and the Cronbach alpha are reported below.
|Edu f – 3 item factor score for differences in education||0.8718|
|E1ij – Difference in literacy||0.879|
|E2ij – Difference in % in 2nd level education||0.909|
|E3ij – Difference in % in 3rd level education||0.889|
Of the 120 countries reported on here, Taiwan and Serbia were the only countries for which not all the education data was available via our primary source – the United Nations Statistical Division. In the case of Taiwan, the indicator E2i was derived using the national scores for the other two education variables, E1i and E3i. For Serbia, E3i was estimated using E1i and E2i. In both cases, multivariate regressions of the indicators for 98 countries yielded adjusted r2‘s of 0.599 and 0.545, respectively.
The primary sources for these estimates were …
- United Nations, Statistical Yearbook, New York, United Nations Statistical Division, 1995.
- United Nations, ‘Social Indicator data’, [www document] http://www.un.org/depts/unsd/social/ (accessed 16 June 1998).