Differences in Education

Differences in the education levels amongst countries are measured using three scales:

E1ij   is the difference in the % of literate adults between countries i & j,

E2ij   is the difference in the % of population enrolled in 2nd level education between countries i & j,

E3ij   is the difference in the % of population enrolled in 3rd level education between countries i & j,

The scores for each of the three indicators, and the resultant factor (see below concerning the confirmatory factor analysis), can be found in an Excel spreadsheet attached at the bottom of this page. This spreadsheet contains the values for 14,280 country pairs (i.e. n x n-1 for 120 countries). The precise coding for these variables is explained below.  Please note that in accordance with the arguments and analyses presented in our JIBS paper, the absolute value of the education dimension is the appropriate form if you are using it as an indicator of psychic distance.

 

TIME PERIOD

For the second and third education indicators, the attached data represent the values for 1994.  For the literacy indicator, the data represent the values for 1995.

 

EDUCATION INDICATOR CALCULATIONS  

Edu F (abs) = absolute value of Edu F

Edu Fis the single-factor solution, using principal component analysis, for E1ij, E2ij and E3ij  

E1ij = (E1i – E1j)

Where, E1i = 100 – % of illiterate adults (15+, male & female) for the exporting country (i)

And, E1j = 100 – % of illiterate adults (15+, male & female) for the importing country (j)  

E2ij = (E2i – E2j)

Where, E2i = # of students in 2nd level education / estimated population under the age of 15 for the exporting country (i)          

And, E2j = # of students in 2nd level education / estimated population under the age of 15 for the importing country (j)  

E3ij = (E3i – E3j)

Where, E3i = # of students in 3rd level education / estimated population under the age of 15 for the exporting country (i)          

And, E3j = # of students in 3rd  level education / estimated population under the age of 15 for the importing country (j)  

 

Edu f– Difference in Education Factor:

The preceding three indicators have be reduced to a single factor using confirmatory factor analysis (cfa).  This factor score has been estimated using all 14,240 country pairs (i.e. including the imputed values for Serbia and Taiwan).  The individual factor loadings and the Cronbach alpha are reported below.

 

  Cronbach
Alpha
Factor
 Loading 
  Edu f – 3 item factor score for differences in education   0.8718
  E1ij – Difference in literacy 0.879  
  E2ij – Difference in % in 2nd level education 0.909  
  E3ij – Difference in % in 3rd level education 0.889  

 

MISSING DATA

Of the 120 countries reported on here, Taiwan and Serbia were the only countries for which not all the education data was available via our primary source – the United Nations Statistical Division.  In the case of Taiwan, the indicator E2i was derived using the national scores for the other two education variables, E1i and E3i.  For Serbia, E3i was estimated using E1i and E2i. In both cases, multivariate regressions of the indicators for 98 countries yielded adjusted r2‘s of 0.599 and 0.545, respectively. 

 

SOURCES 

The primary sources for these estimates were …

      • United Nations, Statistical Yearbook, New York, United Nations Statistical Division, 1995.
      • United Nations, ‘Social Indicator data’, [www document] http://www.un.org/depts/unsd/social/ (accessed 16 June 1998).

Differences_in_Education_n14280.xlsx